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An absolute path is a file path that describes the complete location of a file or directory in the file system of a computer, starting with the root directory. The absolute path specifies the exact location of a file or directory, regardless of which directory is currently active (the so-called working directory).

Example of absolute paths:

  • In Unix/Linux-based systems:
    • /home/user/documents/file.txt
    • /var/www/html/index.html
    Here the path begins with a slash (/), which represents the root directory.
  • In Windows systems:
    • C:\Users\Username\Documents\file.txt
    • D:\Websites\Project\index.html
    Here the path begins with the drive letter (C:\ or D:\), followed by directories and file names.

Differences between absolute and relative path:

  • Absolute path: Specifies the complete path from the root to the target file or directory. It is independent of the current working directory.
  • Relative path: Specifies the path from the current working directory to the target file or directory. It depends on the current working directory.

Example of relative paths:

  • If the current directory /home/user then the relative path to file.txt in the directory documents simple documents/file.txt.
  • In Windows, if the current directory C:\Users\Username then the relative path to file.txt in the directory Documents simple Documents\file.txt.

Use of absolute paths:

  • Scripts and programs: If you need to ensure that a file can be found regardless of the current directory, use an absolute path.
  • Configuration files: Absolute paths can be used to specify the exact location of resources.


  • Clarity and unambiguity: The exact location of the file is always known, which makes the Troubleshooting made easier.
  • Independence from the current directory: Access to files is reliable, regardless of where the program or script is executed from.


  • Inflexibility: If files or directories are moved, the absolute paths must be updated.
  • Difficulty in sharing: If scripts or programs are to be used on different systems, the absolute paths may need to be adjusted to be compatible with the respective file systems.
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